How they do all this was fascinating and there were some things I did not know about our DNA and how it works. While I could never give a lecture on this given the complexity and my lack of knowledge, I can say that I have learned more than I intended, just from reading how it all works. I learned that the mtDNA is passed through the "egg" of the female and thus is much simpler to use to analyze since it carries only one set of chromosomes.
What was interesting was the findings that living Native American tribes are derived from four different lineages. This truly is a fascinating read and I recommend spending the time to do so and surprise yourself with all this ancient history through interesting processes for extracting the information. I was thrilled with it. I had no idea about half of what this covers.
Some of what they found explains the findings of a type X DNA that is also found in the Basque, so that would explain why some Native Americans also have the RH neg blood factor. Anyway, like I said, its a fascinating read. When you get down to the X haploid group, and the ancient source of this group and who has that X gene, you may wish to revisit the Church of Latter day Saints. It appears they were right about what may well have happened in the "latter day" part of their faith.
That definitely blew me away. Now this is science and unrelated to any religion, but historically, the science and writings of the LDS leaders back then, match very well. Just a thought. What else is true that we know nothing about ? No wonder these LDS were hunted and killed by governments right after the first amendment was passed. They were not hunted by the people, but governments. That alone should ring some serious bells.
by Gregory L. Little
by Gregory L. Little
Modern Genetic Research Confirming Cayce’s Story. This section adapted from Mound Builders: Edgar Cayce's Forgotten Record of Ancient America by Gregory L. Little.
DNA analysis on Native Americans began in the 1980s, but with rapid technological improvements, research intensified in the early 1970s. Several teams of genetics researchers at prominent American universities have been conducting numerous studies. Although results from early studies showed the expected Siberian-Asia ancestry of the majority of modem Native American tribes, things took an unexpected turn in 1997.
At that point it was found that a small percentage of modem Native Americans have an unusual type of DNA then known to exist out’, in a few locations in Europe and the Middle East. Subsequent research indicated that the European DNA was not the result of genetic mixing after Columbus. In addition, the same DNA was later found in the bone of an ancient American burial confirming that people carrying this unique DNA had entered America in ancient times.
However, in July 2000, this unique gene was also found in a small tribe living in the northern Gobi Desert area. The DNA research initially seemed to promise solid proof of not only where the ancient Americans came from, but also when they came. However as might be expected, ancient DNA research has become a highly contentious issue with several competing sides. Most of’ the DNA research on Native American Indians has been done utilizing mitochondria. Every cell in our body contains hundreds to thousands of these tiny, football-shaped organelles. The mitochondria processes glucose (sugar) into a usable form of energy for all of our body’s functions.
The mitochondria are believed to be an evolutional form of bacteria that adapted into a symbiotic relationship with multi-celled life forms. Thus, the mitochondria have their own unique DNA, which is simpler and easier to analyze than the human DNA found in the nucleus. Mitochondrial DNA (usually abbreviated as mtDNA) is passed to offspring only’ through the egg. Thus, it is not a combination of male and female genes. It is a haploid gene — meaning that it has only’ one dose of chromosomes.
The haploid mitochondrial DNA shows only the female lineage of a person. Diploid genes are two sets of combined chromosomes, the female set coming from the egg, the male chromosomes from the sperm. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is categorized into several types and groups termed haplotypes and haplogroups. That is, there are variations in the genetic cycle of mitochondria that fit into clusters. These clusters can trace lineage far back into time. There are 39 different, distinct mtDNA groups into which all humans fit and there are variations on these types.
While mtDNA analysis is not only easier than other forms of genetic testing, it has a further advantage. All DNA mutates over time. But mtDNA has a fairly’ steady rate of mutation that permits a reasonably accurate estimate of exactly’ when a particular group of people migrated from their primary group.
Thus, two important factors can be determined through analysis of mtDNA.
- First, a living person (or the mtDNA from the remains of a deceased person) can be tested to determine the specific racial group from which the individual came.
- Secondly, the approximate time when that individual’s ancestors migrated from their primary racial group can be determined.
One way to view mtDNA testing is that it may be able to provide a racial family tree extending back to the beginning of humanity. The current idea in mtDNA analysis is that ancestory on the female side can eventually, be traced back to a genetic "Eve." The 39 types of mtDNA were presumably derived from this Eve. Whether this idea will be completely confirmed by research remains to be seen.
However, mtDNA testing has confirmed several oral traditions passed down through many generations in several tribes. For example, the indigenous people of Hawaii and Polynesia have long asserted that their ancestors frequently traveled back and forth and that they 'shared ancestor’.
Genetic testing showed that these two groups were related and confirmed the migratory’ legends of these peoples.
The first research on living Native American tribes showed they were comprised of four distinct mtDNA haplogroups called A, B, C, and D. This means that the Native Americans are derived from four different lineages.
These haplogroups were also found in native populations in Central and South America. Utter mtDNA research utilizing ancient remains recovered in the Americas validated these four haplogroups. Three of these haplogroups, A, C, and D are found primarily in Siberian Asia.
The B haplogroup, however, is found only in aboriginal groups in Southeast Asia. China, Japan, Melanesia, and Polynesia.
Confirming a South Pacific and Japanese Migration
Based on the mutations found in the mtDNA, most researchers think that groups A, C and D, entered America from Siberia across Beringia some time around 35.000 B.C. Group B, they assert, probably came to America from the South Pacific or Japan via boats. It is believed the B groups began this migration not long after the A, C, and D groups arrived. However, the majority of the B group arrived about 11.000 B.C. This leaves open the possibility of several migrations by the B group from different locations.
It should be noted that a few geneticists have proposed that each of these tour haplogroups came in four separate migrations. And many Clovis supporters argue that all the groups migrated together.
An Unknown and Unexpected Migration Group Confirmed
In 1997, a fifth mtDNA haplogroup was identified in Native Americans. This group, called ‘"X," is present in three percent of living Native Americans. Haplogroup X was not then found in Asia, but was found only in Europe and the Middle East where two to four percent of the population carry it. In those areas, the X haplogroup has primarily been found in parts of Spain, Bulgaria, Finland, Italy, and Israel. In July 2001, a research letter was published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, relating that a few people with the ‘X' type had been identified in a tribe located in extreme southern Siberia.
These people, called the Altasians, or Altaics, as Russian geneticists refer to them, have always lived in the Gobi Desert area. Archaeologists and geneticists are certain that the presence of "X" in America is not the result of historic intermarriages. It is of ancient origin. In addition, the 'X’ type has now been found in the ancient remains of the Basque. Among Native American tribes, the X haplogroup has been found in small numbers in the Yakima, Sioux, and Navaho tribes. It has been found to a larger degree in the Ojibway, Oneota, and Nuu-Chah-Nulth tribes.
The X haplogroup has also been discovered in ancient remains in Illinois near Ohio and a 'few’ other areas near the Great Lakes. It has not (so far) been found in South or Central American tribes including the Maya. The X haplogroup appears to have entered America in limited numbers perhaps as long ago as 34.000 B.C. Around 12,000 B.C. to 10.000 B.C. it appeared in much greater numbers.
It is important to note that not all Native American tribes have been categorized by mtDNA analysis and that relatively few ancient remains have been tested.
The Significance of mtDNA Research
The mtDNA research confirms most of’ the other new findings in archaeology. The Americas were settled early and many different racial groups came. Several different waves of migration probably occurred. The initial wave seems to have occurred around 35.000 B.C. However, it may have been far earlier since some of the recent radiocarbon dates that have emerged from areas like California and the southwest point to 50,000 B.C. But it must be kept in mind that mtDNA analysis is still in its infancy. Not all current Native American tribes and very few remains have been tested.
But the picture the mtDNA research findings paint of ancient America is astonishing. It may’ seem that the apparent widespread presence of the X type (from Canada and Washington State, to Arizona, to the Plains, to the Great Lakes area) could indicate a wide initial dispersal. However, the history of several of these tribes tells a different 'story’. The X type in ancient America appears to be linked to the Iroquois.
This tribe, of course, was, according to Cayce, partly the remnant of Atlantean survivors from its final destruction in 10.000 B.C. The finding of the X group in the north Gobi-dwelling Altasians is hailed as proof that all American migrations came from Siberia via the Bering Straits, yet it seems unlikely.
With the X type being present in the Middle East, Europe, the ancient Basques, and America, a migration from the Gobi to all of these areas is doubtful.
The Cayce readings cite a series of large and small migrations of Atlanteans to very specific parts of the world. These migrations occurred at several times, but especially during the years approaching 10.000 B.C. One of these places was to the Gobi in extreme southern Siberian Asia.
If we assume that haplotype X originated from Cayce’s Atlantis, some of the X haplotype should be found in the Gobi region— but very little of this group should be found elsewhere in Siberia. This is what has been found.
B Haplogroup may Originate from Mu
The B haplogroup, found only in aboriginal groups in Southeast Asia, China, Japan, Melanesia, and Polynesia, may represent Cayce’s people of Mu. Both Chinese and Japanese archaeologists take the idea of Mu seriously, and the B haplogroup findings closely match the story Cayce told about the continent. Most of the people of Mu who escaped the destruction in 50,000 B.C. escaped to China, India, and Japan. Some time later, descendants of these peoples could have traveled to America.
While Cayce said that some people from Mu entered the Americas about 50,000 B.C., he did not indicate that date as the time period when the majority of them came. We only know that it was after 50,000 B.C. and prior to 28,000 B.C.
A,C,&D Haplogroups – from Siberia?
The Cayce readings do indicate that people entered the Americas from both the east and west in 28.000 B.C. These migrants came from Atlantis. China, and from "across the Pacific." The 28.000 B.C. date matches well with the haplogroups A, B, C, and D proposed dates of entry into America. The Cayce readings do have references to the Bering Straits, but Cayce did not relate that there were migrations across it.
In fact, no one ever thought to ask him about this, so it remains an open question in the Cayce story. But the A, C, and D haplogroups clearly originated in Siberia just as the archaeologists have speculated. Cayce stated that the "yellow" or Mongol race of humanity originated in the 'Gobi and gradually’ spread throughout Asia.
Thus, according to Cayce, haplogroups A, C, and D probably originated in the Gobi and would be the migrations Cayce cited as coming from "across the Pacific."
The Atlantean Haplogroup may be X
Cayce indicated that the largest migration from Atlantis occurred just before 10.000 B.C. The majority of these Atlantean survivors went to the Northeastern coastal areas of America and Canada becoming the Iroquois. It should be recalled that Cayce also stated that not all of the Iroquois were Atlantean. The Atlanteans migrating to the Americas merged with the people already present in America by that time.
The Atlanteans became kaders of the tribes. Cayce’s story’ makes it clear that the Atlanteans had serious disputes among themselves that were reflected in ongoing violent conflict. (This was the struggle between the Belial and Law of One groups.)
This is confirmed by the Iroquois’ ancient history that tells of constant battles resulting in distant displacements of entire tribes to ensure their survival. Perhaps the most astonishing confirmation of Cayce’s story of ancient America is the presence of haplogroup X. What is known is that the X haplogroup first showed up in America perhaps 34,000 years ago, but its main entry occurred in 10,000 B.C.
These dates match Cayce’s timeframe for Atlantean migrations as well as the occurrence of X in the specific tribes predicted by his statements. The X group also appears to have shown up in ancient Iberia and in the Basques about the same time as well as in the Gobi.
These dates match Cayce’s story of the final two destructions of Atlantis and the resulting migrations to these areas.
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