Vatic Note: Notice it says they were returning, so that means they could well have been here before this date, but because of the deaths of their crew, they left a tombstone behind. This simply means they were here, but I bet they were here much earlier, since we had many tribes in northern America that were blonde haired blue eyed Indians. Just something to think about. This ties in with RH negs as well... since the pure RH negs were scandinavian.
Title: Kensington Rune Stone Decoded: Vikings, Templars & Goths in America in 1362?
By: Frank Joseph
Kensington Rune Stone Decoded: Vikings, Templars & Goths in America in 1362?
A SIMPLE IMMIGRANT FARMER discovered what seemed to be an ancient stone
with “Vikingstyle” runes inscribed on it in Minnesota, people said he
was crazy or lying. But more than 100 years later, additional
discoveries have proved the stele was indeed the real McCoy, although
left there by Knights Templar of the Middle Ages rather than
BY FRANK JOSEPH
Very few books are truly capable of
rewriting history, but The Hooked X: Key to the Secret History of North
America, by Scott F. Wolter, is certainly one of them. Although the
author of this new Revisionist book, who is well known to longtime
readers of TBR, is a professional geologist and not a historian, the
discoveries made by Wolter in recent years and described in Hooked X are
powerful enough to compel a fundamental rethinking of our view of the
The centerpiece of his revelations is
that controversial, even contentious artifact known as the Kensington
Rune Stone [see TBR, March/April 2002—Ed.].
who are unfamiliar with it, this is a 200-pound greywacke sandstone
stele found by Swedish immigrant farmer, Olof Ohman, while clearing his
land in the largely rural township of Solem, Douglas County, Minnesota,
during September 1898. Lying face down and entwined in the roots of a
stunted, 30-year-old aspen, the 30-by-16-by-six-inch slab was covered on
its face and one side with some sort of runic writing. Ohman brought it
to the nearest town, Kensington, where his find was displayed at the
A badly flawed copy of the inscription was
forwarded to the University of Minnesota, where a translation was
attempted by Olaus J. Breda. It would take more than another 100 years
for scholars, correcting for the imperfect copy, to properly translate
the text. The front face reads, “Eight Gotlanders and 22 Norwegians on
(this) reclaiming/acquisition journey far west from Vinland. We had a
camp by two (shelters?) one day’s journey north from this stone. We were
fishing one day. After we came home we found 10 men red with blood and
death. Ave Maria. Save from evil.”
Inscribed on the
side of the stone are the words, “There are 10 men by the sea to look
after our ships 14 days journey from this island. Year 1362.”
PROFESSIONALS JUMP TO DEBUNK ARTIFACT
a professor of Scandinavian languages and literature, Breda’s runic
knowledge was limited. He hastily proclaimed Ohman’s discovery a
transparent hoax. Breda was supported by Norway’s leading archeologist
of the late 19th century, Oluf Rygh, and his colleagues at Northwestern
University, in Evanston, Illinois.
dismissal of the rune stone was based entirely on its error-ridden
facsimile, and ruined Ohman’s life in an era when a man’s word was truly
his bond. He never tried to make money off the rune stone; he often
cursed the day he found it; and swore he told the whole truth about its
discovery unto the hour of his death.
With the family
reputation ruined, he was shunned and mocked by society to the extent
that one of his daughters committed suicide.
mainstream archeologists and linguists continued to insist that the
Kensington Rune Stone was fraudulent, a geologist at the Minnesota
Historical Society, Newton Horace Winchell, undertook a detailed
physical analysis of the object for the first time. His tests
underscored Ohman’s version of events, as particularly confirmed by
weathering of the stone, which indicated its inscription was about 500
“There was strong support for an authentic rune stone date of 1362,” Winchell concluded, “and little reason to suspect fraud.”
his 1910 report fell into obscurity beneath the louder denunciations of
skeptics, who convinced most of the outside world that the Kensington
Rune Stone was a ludicrous forgery.
A few amateur
researchers had their doubts, however, and wondered if other local
evidence might support the rune stone’s pre-Columbian authenticity. For
examples, they cited the inscribed text for internal evidence. It
describes the location of the rune stone as on an “island,” even though
the object had been found on a farm nowhere near water.
until 1937, when hydrological surveys were conducted for the state of
Minnesota, did investigators learn that the area of discovery was
virtually flooded with streams and lakes during the 14th century and for
at least 500 years before. Increasingly dry conditions beginning in the
16th century transfigured the regional landscape into swamps and marsh,
until it became the rich pasture Olof Ohman settled in the late 1800s.
hill on which he found the rune stone was indeed an island, although
neither he nor anyone else at the time knew it was surrounded by water
back in 1362, the inscribed date. Researchers also pointed out several
triangular holes cut into boulders, apparently very long ago, observed
along river ways leading toward Ohman’s farm; 14th-century Norse
seafarers were known to favor triangular mooring holes.
far north and 27 years before the Kensington Rune Stone was discovered,
an old fire-steel identical to medieval Norse specimens at Oslo’s
University Museum emerged from deep beneath the bank of the Red River
near Climax, Minnesota.
Compelling considerations such
as these prompted investigators to seek out professional help of their
own in 2000. They contacted the St. Paul-based American Petrographic
Services, a firm specializing in the analysis of construction materials
to determine suitability, conformance to specifications, or causes of
It was and is owned and headed by Scott F.
Wolter, a university-trained, certified geologist, who had never even
heard of the Kensington Rune Stone. He would conduct its first detailed
physical analysis since Winchell’s investigation, 90 years before.
no preconceived notions and indifferent to the outcome of his research,
Wolter began using photography with a reflected light microscope, core
sampling and examination via a scanning electron microscope. In
November, he presented his preliminary findings: the alleged artifact
exhibited unmistakable signs of a sub-surface erosional process
requiring a minimum of 200 years. In other words, the Kensington Rune
Stone was buried for at least a century before Olof Ohman excavated it.
conclusion was based on the complete breakdown of mica crystals on the
inscribed surface of the stone, compared to his collected samples of
slate gravestones from Maine; these showed that biotite mica
to mechanically flake off their surfaces after 197 years, plus or minus
five years. Skeptics endeavored to fault his determination by arguing
that standards for mica degradation do not exist.
is true,” he responded to an email inquiry, “that there is no standard
for the mica degradation work I performed on the Kensington Rune Stone.
The reason is, to my knowledge, I am the first to perform this type of
relative age dating study. Because the biotite mica began to weather off
the manmade surfaces of the slate tombstones after approximately 200
years, the Kensington Rune Stone inscription must be older than 200
years (prior to 1898, when it was pulled from the ground), since all the
mica had weathered away from the manmade surfaces.”
he went on to examine each individual rune through a scanning electron
microscope, which revealed some remarkable characteristics. Also noticed
was a hitherto-unseen series of dots engraved inside three R-runes.
This discovery was highly significant, because such dotted runes occur
only on the headstones of 14th century graves in church cemeteries on
the island of Gotland off the coast of Sweden. The Kensington Rune
Stone’s text dates itself to the same century and mentions eight crewmen
studied and replicated the rune stone’s first, long-neglected geologic
report, released in 1910. Early 21st century technology confirmed Prof.
Winchell’s conclusion that the artifact was authentically pre-Columbian.
But the proverbial “smoking gun” was the discovery of a single runic
As Wolter explains, “The rare, medieval rune
called ‘the dotted R’ was not known to modern scholars until 1935, yet
it is found on the Kensington Rune Stone found in 1898. Interpretation:
The presence of ‘the dotted R’ indicates the Kensington Rune Stone
inscription could only have been carved during medieval times.”
verification of the Kensington Rune Stone’s 14th-century identity was a
true scientific triumph, establishing beyond doubt that Scandinavian
seafarers arrived in the heartland of North America 130 years before
Christopher Columbus left Spain in search of the New World.
Wolter expanded his research to reveal much more. He discovered that
the Kensington Rune Stone was not just some pre-Columbian anomaly
proving only that the Norse beat the Spaniards to America. He
competently defines it as a land-claim marker. In other words, the men
who set it up did so to declare what later became west central Minnesota
for themselves. The inscription’s date of 1362, Wolter demonstrates,
was additionally encoded in the runic text itself, because its Arabic
numerals were vulnerable to alteration by interlopers.
carving, the Kensington Rune Stone was deliberately buried, and
triangular-shaped holes were drilled into glacial boulders not far away;
these were used to triangulate and relocate the precise position of the
buried rune stone. The directional marker holes are no speculation, but
were recently found, and do indeed still indicate the original location
of the Kensington Rune Stone’s discovery by Olof Ohman.
goes still further in his quest for information about the artifact to
discover the identity of the man who carved its inscription: a
Cistercian monk from Gotland, the same Swedish island cited in the runic
text. The Cistercians were monastic, Gnostic Christians, founders of
the Knights Templar, who survived the latter’s immolation during the
early 14th century by migrating from France to other parts of Europe,
including Gotland. Templars were still residents of the island at the
time the Kensington Rune Stone was carved in 1362. According to Wolter,
its inscription “includes information related to who the party was,
where their location was, when they were there and why.”
THE HOOKED X
key unlocking this information is the mysterious “hooked X,” which not
only appears on the Kensington Rune Stone, but among several other runic
texts in Europe and pre-Columbian North America. As Wolter explains,
“the hooked X symbol is an important coded runic symbol likely created
by Cistercian monks. The ‘X’ is symbolic of the allegorical
representation of the duality and balance of man and woman, and heaven
and earth. The ‘hook’ in the X is symbolic of the child or offspring,
representative of the continuation and perpetuation of the ‘Goddess’
ideology through common bloodlines and thought.”
His interpretation is substantiated by medieval scholars long aware of the proto-Templar Cistercians’ unusual theology.
“the hooked X appears on dated inscriptions from two exploration
parties during a 40-year period,” inclusive of the Kensington Rune Stone
text’s creation. This peculiar glyph is especially helpful in
authenticating a runic inscription, because it is highly unlikely to
have been known to a hoaxer, appears on few artifacts, and has been
competently dated to the late Middle Ages, thereby helping to establish
not only the authenticity, but the time parameters of a particular
Accordingly, Wolter gives us the Kensington
Rune Stone in the context of other, related finds. Among the best known
is Rhode Island’s Newport Tower. Ordained by mainstream archeologists as
nothing more than the ruin of an 17th-century mill supposedly owned by
the family of none other than Benedict Arnold, Wolter instead
demonstrates that the stone structure in Touro Park “was built using
architecture that is not consistent with pre-Colonial construction
practices before the first known recording in Benedict Arnold’s will in
1677 [this was an ancestor of the more famous Benedict Arnold].. . .
Since the standard unit of measurement used in construction throughout
New England in the 17th century was the English foot, the Newport Tower
[which was laid out in the Norwegian short alen] was not built by
MYSTERIOUS TOWER EXPLAINED
cites dating procedures applied in 1997 to the structure by Danish
professor Andre J. Bethune, whose carbon-14 analysis indicated that, in
Bethune’s words, “the Newport Tower was standing in the years 1440 to
1480.” Wolter shows that its close resemblance to sacred buildings in
medieval Europe and the Near East—such as Scotland’s mid-12th-century
Eynhallow Church in Orkney or Jerusalem’s Templum Domini—defines the
Newport Tower as a baptistery additionally employed for navigational
Wolter quotes a prominent researcher, the
late James Whittall, who pointed out that “the tool marks created in the
dressing out of the stonework (on the Newport Tower) can directly be
related to tools before 1400. These marks are unique and unknown when
compared to tool marks noted in Colonial stonework. . . . The single and
double-splay windows have prototypes in medieval Europe and in the
northern isles of Scotland in the 1300s in churches and the bishop’s
palace in Orkney. . . . The walls were covered with a plaster stucco
finish, both interior and exterior. Stucco finishing started in the
1200s and is a feature known in Orkney and Shetland. . . .There is no
archeological parallel in Colonial New England for the Newport Tower and
its specific architectural features.”
numerous other supporting details leave no doubt about the tower’s
pre-Columbian provenance. Wolter goes to describe several other pieces
of evidence for the medieval European impact on this continent, and for
the presentation alone of these otherwise little-known artifacts, his
book is especially valuable. To him, they are all fragments of an
interrelating mosaic, the final image of which tends to reveal a
post-Templar interest in North America.
Traces of this
shadowy presence are scattered throughout a diverse collection of stone
inscriptions and archeological sites from Minnesota’s Kensington Rune
Stone to similar texts and engraved illustrations in New England.
the least known, yet most convincing discoveries of its kind is a
one-line, lithic inscription found near Pojac Point in Narragansett Bay,
an estuary on the north side of Rhode Island Sound. The mostly
submerged, two-ton, glacial boulder’s difficult accessibility some 60
feet from shore
in often rough water says much for the
pre-Columbian credibility of the runes etched into its top, which just
protrudes above the surface of the sea and is continuously washed by
wave action. These conditions argue strongly against the probability of a
Wolter found that each of the nine glyphs was
approximately two inches long and cut one-half inch deep. The first rune
he was able to identify was a version of H dated to the late Middle
Ages. This suspected period was confirmed when he located a telltale
“hooked X” on the Narragansett Stone. Its location in New England’s
largest estuary, which functions as an expansive natural harbor, tends
to support the probability of visiting seafarers who used this location
as a perfect headquarters from which to navigate the interior.
The Sakonnet River, Mount Hope Bay and the southern tidal part of the Taunton River are all part of Narragansett Bay.
“hooked X” specimens were uncovered far from the Narragansett Stone in
1971. They were found shallowly buried along the shores of Spirit Pond
near Popham Beach, not far from the Maine coast. Like other accidental
discoveries unfortunate enough to have been made by unaccredited
persons, the three Spirit Pond stones were automatically deemed
fraudulent by mainstream opinion, and tossed into the Maine State Museum
at Hallowell, where Wolter took some 1,700 photographs of them from
2006 to 2007. His examination showed that one of the stones, apparently
illustrated with a map, was strangely oriented with east at the top and
north to the left, something a forger would have been unlikely to do.
Yet, until 1500, medieval maps were identically oriented to place
Jerusalem, in the east, at the top.
amateur linguist Richard Nielsen, had already determined an internal
date of “1401” from the Maine artifacts’ runic texts. Only later, just
300 yards from Spirit Pond, did archeologists uncover the remains of a
Norse-style sod building, and radiocarbon-dated its floorboards to circa
Wolter was likewise impressed by the
convincing antiquity of a very large granite boulder illustrated with
the outlines of surrounding topography, and located in a town near the
Merrimac River, as it flows through the northwest section of Middlesex
County, Massachusetts. Known as the Tyngsboro Map Stone, it is an
amazingly accurate representation of the local Merrimac River-Lake
“I was struck by the advanced
stage of weathering of the manmade lines,” Wolter recalls. “I peeled
back some of the lichen, and there was virtually no difference between
the cut lines and the glacial surfaces. The weathering actually
surprised me. Whoever carved this did it long ago.”
THE WESTFORD KNIGHT
far from the Tyngsboro Map Stone, in the same county, a better-known
Massachusetts site he investigated is the Westford Knight allegedly
illustrated on glacially striated, mica-schist bedrock. The image had
been familiar to generations of Westford residents, but was only
professionally photographed for the first time immediately following
World War II. The findings were published shortly thereafter in The
Ruins of Greater Ireland and New England by W.B. Goodwin(Meador Press,
To protect the site, Goodwin never
revealed its precise whereabouts. Some years after his death, however, a
determined reader, Frank Glynn, eventually found the image, which had
been created by punch-holesmade with a hammer. The unorthodox
illustration supposedly portrayed a helmeted knight-at-arms, complete
with sword and shield.
By the time Wolter examined it
in 2006, he was unable to make out anything resembling a human figure,
perhaps because it eroded away in the decades of exposure to the
elements after moss covering the illustration was removed. In any case,
he did clearly discern the pecked outline of a broadsword, which
according to Fitchburg, Massachusetts historian Michael Kaulback “was
identified by British antiquarians as a large ‘hand-and-a-half wheel
pommel blade’ of the 13th or 14th century” (Discovering the Mysteries of
Ancient America, New Page Books, NJ 2006). This would make the image
contemporaneous with Minnesota’s Kensington Rune Stone.
short walking distance from the Westford Knight, the J.V. Fletcher
Library displays a 300-pound glacial granite boulder depicting a sailing
vessel in the company of an arrow and three glyphs.
had been made using a pecking technique similar to the Westford Sword,”
Wolter writes. “The stone had been found only a couple of miles from
the library in 1932 by a landowner named William Wyman. He moved the
‘boat stone’ into a shed and kept it in his possession until one of his
descendants gave it to the library in the early 1960s. The fact that the
pecking technique was similar to the Westford Knight didn’t mean the
carver was the same person, but it could be an indication of the
particular period when they were made.
I was certain
the weathering of both the Westford Boat Stone and the Westford Knight
were not made in the past several decades, and could very well be many
hundreds of years old.”
These artifacts have become
invaluable for the validation of their pre-Columbian authenticity,
thanks to an accredited scientist, a professional geologist. As such, he
has removed them from the uncertain speculation of amateur theorists.
importantly, Scott Wolter shows that they are pieces of a puzzle far
greater than its individual parts. The bigger picture emerging with
breathtaking credibility from his research reveals the surprising extent
and depth of Norse impact on our continent long before Christopher
Columbus was born.
VINLAND MAP AUTHENTIC
as the first copies of The Hooked X were rolling off the press, every
word the author wrote was being powerfully underscored by Rene Larsen,
rector of the School of Conservation at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine
Last July, he and his colleagues—all
world-class authorities in their respective fields—announced during
Copenhagen’s International Conference on the History of Cartography that
the so-called “Vinland Map” was authentic. Their five-year
investigation established that this document, long contested by
conventional scholars, was a compilation of Norse voyages to and
exploration of North America beginning after A.D. 1000.
map’s portrayed land-mass, identified as Vinilanda Insula, encompasses
an area from Maine in the north to the Carolinas in the south; from the
Atlantic seaboard to the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania. The
Danes’ contemporary announcement was a timely vindication of Wolter’s
The first line in his book, opening a
foreword by Niven Sinclair, proclaims, “History needs to be rewritten.”
And so it has been, in The Hooked X.
Wolter, Scott F., The Hooked X, Key to the Secret History of North America, North Star Press of St. Cloud, Inc., MN, 2009.
JOSEPH is a supporter of what has been called the hyper-diffusionist
approach to prehistory. He was born in Chicago in 1944. His father, a
Jew, spent time in the Dachau concentration camp. Joseph is the author
of the books Atlantis and Other Lost Worlds and The Lost Civilization of
Lemuria. He is also staff correspondent at Ancient American, a
quarterly magazine investigating possible visits to our continent from
the Old World before Columbus. See more at www.AncientAmerican.com
The article is reproduced in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.